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The key elements are mission-specific requirements and standards; quality training and development; and a self-evaluation and predeployment confirmation of operational readiness through formal certification. During the course of last year, we made important strides in the area of police 11 standards and readiness, as well, including finalizing revised guidance on predeployment assessments for individual police officers and formed units. The Police Division has also taken steps to improve the performance of Formed Police Units, including through: deploying mobile training teams; revising the FPU Policy; developing a standardized pre-deployment curriculum; reviewing standards for operational readiness; and, strengthening inspection and training regimes in-mission.

The Police Division also revisited recommended rotation cycles to encourage longer tours of duty, a move that is now reflected in recent SAG recommendations. As a result of these steps, the percentage of FPUs with fully operational capability has increased from 37 per cent in to 93 per cent today. The Police Division regularly checks the operability of FPU equipment, so that we can quickly inform Member States of the need to issue replacements. In thanking police contributing countries for this progress, I would like to remind Member States of the importance in ensuring that FPUs are fully operational and include functional equipment.

An important element of performance is monitoring and evaluation for effective mandate delivery. At present, there is no mechanism for regular review and monitoring of the uniformed components of peacekeeping operations. And, while other UN evaluation functions have limited military capacity, they do not focus on the operational preparedness and utilization of uniformed capabilities and are unable to provide the kind of operational and strategic advice we need to review and correct policies and their implementation.

The proposed Directorate, reporting directly to me, would provide a more systemic and strategic analysis and overview of how uniformed personnel are utilized in missions.

This should allow better information to ensure that this most vital UN peacekeeping resource — uniformed personnel — are adequately supported and deployed. By providing more strategic evaluation and review, the Directorate will 12 also be able to focus on the consistent application of rules, guidelines and policies, providing more integrated analysis of the operational readiness of contingents on the ground.

Working closely with troop and police contributing countries, this independent advisory function would support and advise United Nations uniformed personnel and would play a key role in ensuring the continued performance of UN peacekeeping operations. Should the recommendations of the Senior Advisory Group on rates of reimbursements to troop contributing countries and related issues be approved by the General Assembly, the Directorate would also oversee the uniform application of criteria set for the award of premiums.

I would like to mention one final element related to capabilities: securing and expanding the range and capability of troop and police contributors. Member States are taking new and innovative approaches to support peacekeeping missions, such as developing bi- or multilateral agreements to combine resources. We have already held these discussions in Asia and Europe, and I look forward to the next session, planned for Latin America later this year.

I would like to turn now to our work on protection of civilians. Many of our missions have been dealing with extremely complex POC challenges. Inter-communal clashes in South Sudan, for example, have led to hundreds of civilian deaths; they present a persistent challenge for UNMISS, as it endeavors to assist the Government in preventing and responding to these tensions. As you know, much of the 13 good work that our missions do to protect civilians in these contexts goes unpublicized.

One of the areas that we have been exploring more closely is how we can better support host governments to take forward their responsibility in protecting civilians. This can be a challenging endeavor for a number of reasons, including the fact that the host countries we work with often have limited capacity, varying levels of willingness at the operational and tactical levels, and — in some cases — have elements within their ranks responsible for harming civilians.

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Nonetheless, supporting host country efforts to protect civilians is fundamental to our joint efforts to establishing lasting and sustainable peace. We also believe that the international community must continue to send a strong message to host nations that protecting civilians is a joint response. Indicating that host countries have the primary responsibility for protecting civilians is not simply a reaffirmation of the principle of state sovereignty — it is a recognition of the fact that host governments must take a strong and visible lead in protecting civilians, and that peacekeeping operations will do their utmost to support them in doing so.

Child protection is an integral part of peacekeeping mandates. In UNAMID, the mission facilitated orders from several armed groups to stop the recruitment of children in their ranks. Through the evolution of the women, peace and security agenda over the past 12 years, UN peacekeeping has worked to support the inclusion of women in political and civil affairs, as well as in peacebuilding and the conflict resolution process. We see the urgency of their advocacy and perspectives in Mali today, where sexual violence against women is reported to be widespread.

Any follow on mission there will be able to build on this early and strategic attention to this critical dimension. We also remain committed to implementing our mandate on conflict-related sexual violence. A critical element of the success of the implementation of peacekeeping mandates is the engagement in early peacebuilding, particularly activities aimed at strengthening rule of law and security institutions. Ebooks and Manuals

I would like to highlight some of the positive developments in our work in this field over the past year. The Strategy expands the remit of the Mine Action Service into weapons collection and management. This is particularly useful in our current areas of contingency planning, such as in Mali, where there are reports of unexploded ordinance. The Criminal Law and Judicial Advisory Service and the Justice and Corrections Standing Capacity in Brindisi have also been active in strengthening the rule of law in to host countries.

They have supported mission justice and corrections components to: operate mobile courts; re-establish courts and prisons in the aftermath of conflict; support investigations and prosecutions; put in place key legislation; and review the cases of those languishing in pre-trial detention. Progress has been made in developing guidance in the area of security sector reform, where the number and complexity of requests for assistance continue to increase.

In , we produced a training package to operationalize the UN Policy on Defence Sector Reform in support of reform processes in the field. Also last year, we finalized and launched, in the framework of the Inter-Agency SSR Task Force, the first set of integrated technical guidance notes.

In the related field of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, work has concentrated on facing the second generation, non-traditional DDR and new challenges, including how to manage armed groups, particularly as part of the contingency planning for possible new peacekeeping operations. Why suffer? Take care when on the toilet to avoid spreading feces to where they could come in contact with the opening of the urethra. It is recommended that you use ONLY white unscented toilet paper, as many women react to dyes and chemicals used in the other toilet papers.

Unbleached toilet paper is even better to reduce any possible chlorine exposure and it is kinder to the environment as well.

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In Sweden, dried blueberries are used to treat childhood diarrhea Kowalchuk, Their effectiveness is attributed to anthocyanosides, a natural substance found in blueberries, which is believed to be lethal to E. One serving of blueberries delivers the antioxidant power of 5 servings of most other fruits and vegetables.

Pregnant and nursing mothers should always check with their health care practitioner before changing their diet or supplementing. Research Summaries: 1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Researchers isolated three compounds in blueberries known to lower cholesterol levels.

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In a follow-up study, one of the three phytochemicals—pterostilbene—showed a potent effect in stimulating a receptor protein in cells that is important in lowering cholesterol and other blood fats. In vitro study in Biochemistry and Cell Biology: 24 hours of exposure to extracts of blueberry antioxidants sharply reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinases—enzymes that play a key role in the development metastasis of malignant tissue in human prostate cancer cells.

Editor's note: We do not condone irradiating any living creatures, including rats. The research reported here may be of value if it protects animals and humans from the affects of radiation. A team of researchers led by Barbara Shukitt-Hale studied a group of 60 young male rats by splitting them up into three groups.

The first group was fed a diet with no berries, the second was fed a diet with strawberry extract and the third group was fed a diet with blueberry extract. After the rats had been on the diets for two months, half of the rats were subjected to radiation to quicken the aging process.

After half the rats were irradiated, the entire group was put through tests that included a maze test and a chemical test for dopamine. Low levels of dopamine point to poor memory and attention, and other poor mental skills. The researchers found that the rats that had been irradiated and were on a diet with no berries nervous system from radiation damage. The rats that had been irradiated and were on a diet with berry extract performed as well as the group that had not been irradiated.

Vedette : Les bleuets dans l'histoire! Les bleuets entiers, frais et de culture organique sont la meilleure source des bienfaits des bleuets que vous puissiez trouver. Il contient notamment entre autres du fructose, des fibres, des vitamines et des antioxydants.

Alternatives Humanitaires - N°8

Pourquoi souffrir? Que contient le fruit? Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries. J Agric Food Chem, Jul 28; 52 15 : 2.

Pratique française du droit international

Biochem Cell Biol, Oct; 83 5 3. The Trustee declares that it accepts the office of trustee of the Fund in accordance with the terms and conditions of this agreement. The Fund shall be held by the Trustee for the purposes specified in the Plan and be managed and disposed of in accordance with the provisions of this agreement. The duties of the Trustee are solely those which are contained in this agreement. Furthermore, the Trustee shall be under no obligation or duty to review the Plan or enforce the payment of, verify the accuracy of or collect any contributions to the Fund required to be made under the Plan.

The French Revolution: Crash Course World History #29

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